A lawsuit is a formal legal proceeding in which a person seeks damages, relief, or other rights from someone else. The party bringing the suit is called the plaintiff, and the person against whom the suit is brought is called the defendant.
A civil lawsuit can be brought against a variety of people or entities, including governmental agencies. It can involve claims for money, injury or damages, return of property, or other non-criminal matters.
The most important step in a lawsuit is filing the initial complaint, also called a “pleading,” which sets out the basis for the case and the “relief” (whatever that may be) that the plaintiff would like granted. It should also state the relevant factual allegations supporting the legal claims brought by the plaintiffs.
After the pleading has been filed, each party is assigned to prepare for trial by exchanging information through a process known as discovery. This process includes document review, organization and interviews of witnesses by each side to determine if their claims and defenses are valid or not.
During the trial, each side presents evidence to a judge or jury. The judge then instructs the jury on how to apply the law and rules of the case to the facts presented by the parties.
Once the court has made its decision, either party can ask for an appeal. An appeal can be brought for a number of reasons, including if the trial was improperly conducted or if the judge has wrongfully changed his interpretation of the law. The party appealing usually asks a higher court, called an appellate court, to review the case and decide whether it should be sent back to the lower court or tried again.